welcome to SKINCARMA!

These are the musings of a skincare junkie + writer + brand guru with 25+ years of product wisdom put into action to demystify skin care. 

You can change your skin’s destiny.™

Happy Sunday from Orpheus and me.

Happy Sunday from Orpheus and me.

I have been wanting to write this blog since day one — more than a year ago. But this one is the hardest one of all. Why? Because my morning skincare routine is constantly changing. It’s like a moving target, impossible to pin down — and nearly impossible to write about. When I first posted about my PM regimen, available here, more than three months ago, I intended to write about my morning regimen the following week! Better late than never, right?

So, let me get something clear before I go any further. This is my morning regimen from today — Sunday, February 17, 2019.

Oh, let me get one more thing out. My skincare regimens — both AM and PM — are focused on my skin’s health and optimizing it with pro-skin health products that give my skin everything it needs. So why did I call this blog “MY AM ANTI-AGING SKINCARE ROUTINE” and not “MY AM HEALTHY SKINCARE ROUTINE” ? Because few people search Google for a “healthy skincare routine.” Instead, they search for anti-aging skincare, anti-aging moisturizers, anti-aging serums — anti-aging, anti-aging, anti-aging. No matter, my Skincarma philosophy is that if you’re optimizing your skin’s health with a routine centered around hydration, that is anti-aging!

Look, there’s no such thing as a universally perfect skincare routine because your skin’s needs change every day — based on both internal and external factors. Let me talk specifically about me and my skin. Here in NYC, winter is waning and temps are fluctuating wildly. A week ago, it was 5˚f / -15˚ C. Today, it’s in the low 40’s (6˚ C). That’s a huge difference when it comes to how your skin reacts to temperatures and fluctuations in humidity levels. I’m simply not as dry today as I was seven, eight days ago. In addition, it’s been a stressful few days for me and my skin is showing it with slight redness. My skin reacts, too, to my PM regimen from the night before. If I’ve used a Glycolic Acid or retinoid treatment, my skin can act sensitized and I will adjust my morning regimen accordingly.

The moral of the story here is you need to take care of your skin based on what it needs at the time, not based on the newest trendy product you picked up last week at Sephora, Space NK or Olive Young. Pay attention to your skin. It’s telling you everything you need to know.

So here goes, my morning regimen, step by step…


Step 1: Cleanser.

Yes, you need to use a cleanser in the AM! I’ve heard some variation of the following 87,000 times:

Do I need to use a cleanser in the morning? I washed my face last night before I went to bed. I didn’t go anywhere but to bed. How could my face possibly be dirty?

Ugh. I don’t want to be or sound condescending — but how simplistic is that? Here’s the thing. Sure, unless you have a sleepwalking problem, you didn’t go outside and expose your skin to environmental pollution in the middle of the night. And of course you didn’t sleep on a dirty pillowcase! But air pollution and grime from a soiled pillowcase aren’t the only things that need to be cleansed from your face. Your skin is going through a reparative, regenerative cycle while you sleep — essentially detoxifying itself. Oil and sweat are being expelled through your pores throughout the night. In addition, not everything you apply to your face before bed is completely absorbed by the skin. The truth is, a lot of it just sits on the surface because it cannot penetrate the skin barrier. All of that is on your face in the morning and needs to be washed off with a proper cleanser. A gentle gel or foam cleanser will do. Even a cleansing water is sufficient. (That’s what I prefer first thing in the morning!) What’s most important is that you start out with a clean slate. Think of your skin as a painter does his empty canvas. Today, my go-to cleanser is the Soothing Tea Cleansing Gel from indie brand Then I Met You — sister brand of the K-Beauty powerhouse, Soko Glam. Currently, the brand comprises only two products, both cleansers —a “double cleanse.” I reviewed both in this post a few week ago.


Step 2: Toner.

Toning is the unsung hero of every serious skincare regimen. And it’s perhaps the biggest difference in the Korean approach to skin care. The philosophy of K-beauty rests fundamentally on hydration. Hydrated skin is healthy skin. Using a well-formulated toner is key to achieving optimal hydration. But what’s in a toner is as important as what’s not: alcohol. For some outrageous reason, Americans think of a toner as an alcohol-based astringent — part of the cleansing step. That’s so wrong, and compromises the skin barrier. And, in my opinion, it’s precisely why Koreans are known for their amazing “glass skin” complexions and Americans, well, aren’t. Toning is the first hydrating step in my skincare regimen. Skin is a system of layers, most notably three main layers: the epidermis (aka the skin barrier and the only visible layer), the dermis, and the hypodermis. Healthy skin requires the right balance of water-based hydration and oil-based moisture. And hydrated, even wet skin, draws skincare products deeper into the skin’s layers where they’re most beneficial. I like to think of my skin as a sponge. A wet sponge soaks water up from the kitchen counter faster and more effectively than a dry sponge. (Try it!) Water molecules attract one another like a magnet. Today’s go-to toner is the Laneige Bright Renew Skin Refiner. It’s power-packed with three potent antioxidants at high levels: Niacinamide, Camellia Sinensis Leaf Extract (green tea) and Ascorbyl Glucoside — a stable form of vitamin C that when combined with glucose breaks down in the skin to Ascorbic Acid, or pure Vitamin C. I recently reviewed it here.


Step 3: Hyaluronic Acid Serum.

If you pay even the slightest bit of attention to skincare product trends, you’ve likely heard of Hyaluronic Acid and are either using a Hyaluronic Acid (HA) serum or want to be but don’t know where to begin. Remember what I said about the skin layers. Water-based hydration resides in the deeper layers of the skin, oil-based moisture in the surface, or top layers. Hyaluronic Acid is naturally occurring in the skin, which is always a good thing. And, it’s a humectant, meaning it binds water to itself, preventing evaporation through the skin surface. Following cleansing and toning, my skincare routine starts out with an HA serum. Hyaluronic Acid comes in many forms and multiple molecular sizes, which is evident in the consistency of any individual serum — some are super watery, some are thicker and more pulpy. None of that matters much. What matters is that you’re using one. The Hyaluronic Acid serum I used this morning is one of my all-time faves — the super-watery Hyaluronic Marine Hydration Booster from dermatologist brand Dr. Dennis Gross. Because it’s formulated with a low-molecular HA, it absorbs into the skin instantly and is very easily layered in the morning when time is tight.


Step 4: Peptide Serum.

Peptides. We’re wading into advanced skin care on this one. What the hell are peptides? Not to get too deep in the weeds, but peptides are made up of amino acids and are essentially fragments of proteins — the building blocks of our skin. We all know proteins are as good for us as Vitamin C. The same goes for peptides! And they’re great for advancing skin health. The Ordinary’s “Buffet” peptide serum is what put them on the map. A year ago, Deciem supercharged the original Buffet with copper peptides. I’ve been using the new and improved “Buffet” + Copper Peptides 1% serum ever since. Peptides plump and replenish skin and I use it every morning. As with Hyaluronic Acid and Vitamin C, I consider peptides essential to my daily routine. You can read more about peptides and their importance to skin in a previous blog article “SKINCARE 101 : UBER-MYSTERIOUS PEPTIDES” here.

The iconic CE Ferulic from Skinceuticals is simply the perfect Vitamin C-based antioxidant serum.

The iconic CE Ferulic from Skinceuticals is simply the perfect Vitamin C-based antioxidant serum.

Step 5: Vitamin C Serum.

Similar to Hyaluronic Acid, Vitamin C is very trendy right now. But it’s not trendy like Cannabis Oil is trendy. That won’t even be a thing in a year! Vitamin C has been around since the dawn of time. We all learned of the importance of vitamins, and Vitamin C in particular, to our health from our earliest age. When I was a kid, I drank orange juice every morning and took my Flintstone's Chewables religiously.


Just as it’s good for our overall health, it’s good for our skin health, too. Vitamin C has multiple benefits for skin, functioning as a powerful antioxidant, proven collagen stimulant, and unrivaled skin tone brightener. Every healthy skincare routine should incorporate a Vitamin C serum in some form. There are various versions of Vitamin C ingredients and it can get quite confusing. The substance is highly unstable and doesn’t play well with other ingredients — which is why it’s best to use a separate Vitamin C serum rather than relying on its stability and efficacy in a moisturizer. This morning, I used the iconic CE Ferulic treatment from Skinceuticals. It’s simply the perfect Vitamin C-powered serum. Read more about it in my review here.

Step 6: Antioxidant Serum.


Antioxidants are everything. Throughout the day, our skin is exposed to external forces and substances that compromise its healthy functions and even damage the skin barrier itself. A weakened skin barrier is simply not as capable of defending our bodies as it needs to be. And a weakened skin barrier shows signs of aging much quicker than you want. The stronger your skin barrier, the more youthful you’ll look as you age. I recognize antioxidants as important to my skin health as sunscreen. Antioxidants help to shield skin from damaging free radicals — and particularly, free radicals in the polluted air around us. Antioxidants come in many forms — some vitamins are the most potent of antioxidants, including Vitamin C, Vitamin E and Vitamin B3 — also known as Niacin, Nicotinic acid and Niacinamide. Because I employ multiple forms of antioxidants throughout both my AM and PM regimens, I want to focus on the benefits of Niacinamide, in particular. According to my skincare muse, Paula Begoun, these include the ability to visibly improve the appearance of enlarged pores, uneven skin tone, fine lines, dullness, and a weakened skin surface. Specifically, I rely on The Ordinary’s Niacinamide 10% + Zinc 1% to flush out my pores and prevent the pore clogging that often results in blemishes. I use it every morning like clockwork to prevent that from happening.

But what about that alleged conflict between Vitamin C and Niacinamide? From Paula herself:

What about using vitamin C (ascorbic acid) and niacinamide in the same product or applied at the same time in separate products? 

You might have read or heard that niacinamide and vitamin C shouldn’t be used at the same time, whether found together in the same product or applied separately one after the other. Rest assured, this combination is fine and is in fact quite beneficial! 

The research this misconception is based on was conducted in the 1960s; the forms of niacinamide and vitamin C used in this study were not stabilized—although niacinamide itself is very stable. The base of the formula used in this study was also far different than today’s sophisticated skincare formulas. Today, cosmetic chemists know how to combine niacinamide and vitamin C in the ideal base formulas that enhance their compatibility


Step 7: Probiotic Treatment.

Over the last several weeks, I’ve been raving over the use of probiotics in skin care — one of the hot new skincare trends. And I recently wrote an article about promising new probiotic products formulated to treat acne with a whole new approach: rebalancing the skin surface. For several months now, I’ve been using active probiotic skincare from the Australian indie brand Amperna. What’s telling about the Amperna skincare products in my arsenal is that I think of them as medicine, reaching for my go-to probiotic treatments whenever my skin is in distress. Yesterday morning I was shaving and accidentally spilled my mouth guard cleaner into the sink basin full of warm water. I thought nothing much of it, assuming that the small amount of innocuous cleaner would be sufficiently diluted by the two gallons of water in the sink. I was wrong. As the day went on, my newly shaven beard area became increasingly sensitized and distressed with small red patches that look like a rash. I knew what caused it — and knew I needed to give my skin a break and treat it gently before bed. I swapped out my entire regimen for my Amperna serums and moisturizers. This morning, I’m using the Probiotic+ DS Soothing Serum. It’s formulated with a blend of copper and zinc to help control surface bacteria and soothe skin experiencing discomfort. I’ll survive, but thanks to Amperna, I’ll also recover more quickly!


Step 8: Moisturizer.

You may not have noticed, but the Skincarma skincare routine is in part based on molecular weights — that is, thinner formulas to thicker formulas, water-based treatments to oil-based treatments. Everything I’ve applied until now has led up to the thickest formula in my AM arsenal, my moisturizer. And my choice for today is my latest crush — my Custom Moisturizer from Stubborn Cosmetics. Yes, it was featured in my blog article from last week. My Custom Moisturizer includes a plethora of nourishing and replenishing non-fragrant plant oils, including: Rice Bran Oil, Passion Fruit Seed Oil, Olive Oil fatty acid, Propanediol, Camellia Seed Oil, Panthenol, Behenyl (fatty) Alcohol and another fatty acid derivative of olive oil, Sorbitan Olivate. Because it was made for me, it’s simply perfect. Moisturizers can easily be overcomplicated and over-marketed. Look for a well-formulated moisturizer that doesn’t make wild anti-aging claims.

My Custom Moisturizer from Stubborn Cosmetics is literally perfect, because it was made for me!

My Custom Moisturizer from Stubborn Cosmetics is literally perfect, because it was made for me!

Your oil-based moisturizer needs to do one thing well: moisturize!


If a moisturizer is delivering an adequate degree of plant-based oils to your skin, then you’re giving your skin what it needs to be healthy. We’re human. We love plants. Our skin loves plants. And our skin loves replenishing oils from plants — like squalane, jojoba, sunflower, shea and avocado. They’re all compatible with the skin and deliver what you need — all you need, in fact. If you need a recommendation on a moisturizer, please comment here or DM me on the Skincarma IG page.

Step 9: Eye Cream.


I gotta admit, often I don’t use a separate eye cream. That sounds scandalous, doesn’t it? I just don’t believe that the eye area needs something different than the skin on the rest of my face. Or yours. What it needs is hydration, moisture, antioxidants, and sunscreen. From time to time, I do want to treat puffiness and even pretend to treat dark circles — which are essentially untreatable in any real way. Get sleep, drink water. If those don’t help, use a concealer. This morning, I was in the mood for a separate eye cream — two, in fact. The first is actually the one I applied second.

It’s the Skinceuticals Physical Eye UV Defense SPF 50 which I’ve reviewed previously here. I’m a huge proponent of sunscreen, including in the eye area. In fact, unprotected sun exposure is one of the leading causes of dark circles! Yes, sun damage! I recognize that most people don’t want to use a sunscreen very close to the eye area, certainly not right up to the eye lashes. I couldn’t disagree more. Remember what I said about the skin around your eyes needing the same things as the rest of your face? That goes double for sun protection as eye area skin is actually thinner. If you’re concerned about getting too close to the delicate eye area with chemicals, then use a mineral sunscreen. If you’re concerned about sunscreen bleeding into and burning your eyes, then my go-to Skinceuticals SPF 50 is exactly what you need!


Back to the first eye cream of the day…


It’s from cult brand Drunk Elephant and it’s packed with vitamin superpowers! The Drunk Elephant C-Tango Multivitamin Eye Cream is a “clean” formula that’s oddly made with 78 ingredients! How you make a clean formula with 78 ingredients is beyond me. That’s no small miracle. Five of those ingredients happen to be forms of Vitamin C. Drunk Elephant is spot on when they declare that the formula’s Power Five C Vitamin Complex, “when paired with peptides and antioxidants like vitamin E and superoxide dismutase, offers unparalleled defense against damaging UV rays, pollution, and other free radicals.” C-Tango is loaded with good-for-skin ingredients like multiple forms of ceramides, other vitamins, antioxidants and peptides. There are so many non-fragrant plant oils I can’t even list them all here (but they’re listed below in the product’s full ingredient list). Read about today’s first go-to eye cream on a recent review here.

Step 10: Sunscreen.


In my opinion, the most effective anti-aging treatment you can apply to your skin is a daily sunscreen. Quite simply, UV damage is the leading cause of skin aging. In fact, I’ve read numerous studies that say the sun’s UV rays are the cause of somewhere between 80-90% of skin aging. UVA rays, in particular, deeply penetrate the skin barrier and over time, damage collagen and elastin. It’s the loss of both that hollows out the skin and causes the surface to fold on itself, forming a wrinkle. For numerous reasons, my longtime fave sunscreen is the NIOD Survival 30. In fact, I wrote an entire article about it here. As with everything else in skin care, even SPF is complicated. Let me make it simple. Look for a mineral sunscreen with at least an SPF rating of 30 — an no alcohol! Save the alcohol for your mimosa at Sunday brunch. Find those three things in a sunscreen and you’ve got a winner on your hands. Or, just take my advice and go with the NIOD formula.

SPF 15 blocks 93% of UVB rays, SPF 30 blocks 97% of UVB rays, and SPF 50 blocks 98% of UVB rays. So, the difference between 30 and 50 is about 1 percent.

I hope this was insightful and, most importantly, helpful. It’s complete madness out there. And we’re bombarded by millions of products, most of which aren’t all that great for our skin. The more you educate yourself and the more you pay attention to your skin, the better off you’ll be!



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The Ingredient List of the Then I Met You Soothing Tea Cleansing Gel:

Rice Ferment Filtrate (Sake), Aqua (Water/Eau), Sorbitol, Glycerin, Acrylates/Beheneth-25 Methacrylate Copolymer, Diethylhexyl Sodium Sulfosuccinate, Potassium Cocoyl Glycinate, 1,2 Hexanediol, Disodium Laureth Sulfosuccinate, Diglycerin, Potassium Cocoate, Propylene Glycol, Glycyrrhiza Glabra (Licorice) Root Extract, Salix Alba (Willow) Bark Extract, Melaleuca Alternifolia (Tea Tree) Leaf Extract, Sodium Hyaluronate, Centella Asiatica Extract, Theobroma Cacao (Cocoa) Extract, Citrus Reticulata (Tangerine) Peel Oil, Camellia Sinensis Leaf Extract, Panthenol, Gluconolactone, Butylene Glycol, Polyacrylate Crosspolymer-6, Ethylhexylglycerin, T-Butyl Alcohol, Disodium EDTA, Citric Acid, Glyceryl Caprylate.

The Ingredient List of the Dr. Dennis Gross Hyaluronic Marine Hydration Booster:

Oenothera Biennis (Evening Primrose) Flower/Leaf/Stem Extract, Glycerin, Saccharide Isomerate, Yucca Aloifolia Leaf/Root Extract, Sodium Hyaluronate, Linoleic Acid, Centella Asiatica Extract, Cucumis Sativus (Cucumber) Fruit Extract, Ceramide AP, Ceramide EOP, Ceramide NP, Citrullus Lanatus (Watermelon) Fruit Extract, Hydrolyzed Collagen, Camellia Sinensis Leaf Extract, Quercetin Caprylate, Glycolic Acid, Lactic Acid, Chamomilla Recutita (Matricaria) Flower Extract, Glycine Soja (Soybean) Extract, Retinol, Tocopheryl Acetate, Symphytum Officinale Extract, Cocos Nucifera (Coconut) Fruit Juice, Tetrapeptide-21, Copper PCA, Sodium PCA, Urea, Bisabolol, Acrylates/Carbamate Copolymer, C13-14 Isoparaffin, Phytosphingosine, Zinc PCA, Laureth-7, Sodium Lauroyl Lactylate, Isosteareth-200 Linoleate, Polysorbate 20, Carbomer, Cholesterol, Polyacrylamide, Xanthan Gum, Disodium EDTA, Phenoxyethanol, Sodium Benzoate, Fragrance.

The Ingredient List of The Ordinary “Buffet” + Copper Peptides 1%:

Aqua (Water), Glycerin, Lactococcus Ferment Lysate, Copper Tripeptide-1, Acetyl Hexapeptide-8, Pentapeptide-18, Palmitoyl Tripeptide-1, Palmitoyl Tetrapeptide-7, Palmitoyl Tripeptide-38, Dipeptide Diaminobutyroyl Benzylamide Diacetate, Acetylarginyltryptophyl Diphenylglycine, Sodium Hyaluronate Crosspolymer, Sodium Hyaluronate, Allantoin, Glycine, Alanine, Serine, Valine, Isoleucine, Proline, Threonine, Histidine, Phenylalanine, Arginine, Aspartic Acid, Trehalose, Fructose, Glucose, Maltose, Urea, Sodium PCA, PCA, Sodium Lactate, Citric Acid, Hydroxypropyl Cyclodextrin, Sodium Chloride, Sodium Hydroxide, Butylene Glycol, Pentylene Glycol, Acacia Senegal Gum, Xanthan Gum, Carbomer, Polysorbate 20, Dimethyl Isosorbide, Sodium Benzoate, Caprylyl Glycol, Ethylhexylglycerin, Phenoxyethanol, Chlorphenesin.

The Ingredient List of the Amperna Probiotic+ DS Soothing Serum:

Aqua, Cyclopentasiloxane, Cyclohexasiloxane, Dimethicone Crosspolymer, Ceramide 3, Ceramide 6 II, Ceramide 1, Phytosphingosine, Cholesterol, Sodium Lauroyl Lactylate, Lactococcus Ferment Lysate, Glyceryl Stearate, PEG-100 Stearate, Sodium-L-Lactate, Sorbitan Stearate, Magnesium aspartate, Zinc gluconate, Copper gluconate, Calcium gluconate, Panthenol (Vitamin B5), Allantoin, Urea, Hyaluronic Acid, Menthyl Lactate, Titanium Dioxide, Caprylic/Capric Triglyceride, Sodium Polyacrylate, Salvia Officinalis (Sage) Oil, DMDM Hydantoin, Iodopropynyl Butylcarbamate, Carbomer, Xanthan Gum.

The Ingredient List of the Skinceuticals CE Ferulic:

aqua / water / eau, ethoxydiglycol, ascorbic acid, glycerin, propylene glycol, laureth-23, phenoxyethanol, tocopherol, triethanolamine, ferulic acid, panthenol, sodium hyaluronate.

The Ingredient List of The Ordinary Niacinamide 10% + Zinc 1%:

Aqua (Water), Niacinamide, Pentylene Glycol, Zinc PCA, Dimethyl Isosorbide, Tamarindus Indica Seed Gum, Xanthan gum, Isoceteth-20, Ethoxydiglycol, Phenoxyethanol, Chlorphenesin.

The Ingredient List of the Drunk Elephant C-Tango Multivitamin Eye Cream:

Water, Propanediol (solvent/hydration), Butylene Glycol (texture enhancer/hydration), Ethoxydiglycol (solvent), Glycerin (skin-replenishing), Ascorbyl Glucoside (vitamin C/antioxidant), Panthenol (hydration), Salicylic Acid (exfoliant), Camellia Sinensis (White Tea) Leaf Extract (antioxidant), Glycyrrhiza Glabra (Licorice) Root Extract (skin-soothing), Potassium Azeloyl Diglycinate (skin-brightening), Coffea Arabica (Coffee) Fruit Extract (antioxidant), Ceramide NP (skin-replenishing/restoring), Vitis Vinifera (Grape) Seed Extract, Panax Ginseng Root Extract (antioxidants), Niacinamide (skin-restoring), Phytic Acid, Epigallocatechin Gallate (antioxidants), Adenosine (skin-restoring), Ubiquinone (coenzyme Q10/antioxidant), Calendula Officinalis (English Marigold) Extract, Lonicera Caprifolium (Honeysuckle) Flower Extract (skin-soothing agents), Sodium Hyaluronate (skin-replenishing), Lecithin (skin-restoring), Centella Asiatica Extract (antioxidant/skin-soothing), Sucrose Stearate (emulsifier), Glycine Soja (Soybean) Seed Extract (antioxidant), Hydrogenated Lecithin (skin-restoring), Carbomer (texture enhancer), Tetrasodium Glutamate Diacetate (chelating agent), Caprylic/Capric Triglyceride (skin-replenishing), Caprylyl Glycol (emollient), Polysorbate 20, Polyglyceryl-10 Stearate (emulsifiers), Hydroxyethylcellulose (texture enhancer), Sodium Hydroxide (pH adjuster), Ethylhexylglycerin, Phenoxyethanol (preservatives).

The Ingredient List of the Skinceuticals Physical Eye UV Defense SPF 50:

titanium dioxide, zinc oxide, dimethicone, c12-15 alkyl benzoate, triethylhexanoin, isohexadecane, talc, hydrogenated jojoba oil, dimethicone crosspolymer, styrene/acrylates copolymer, c30-45 alkyldimethylsilyl polypropylsilsesquioxane, dimethicone/vinyl dimethicone crosspolymer, aluminum stearate, alumina, polyhydroxystearic acid, iron oxides, phenoxyethanol, silica silylate, peg-8 laurate, triethoxycaprylylsilane, 2-oleamido-1,3-octadecanediol, disodium stearoyl glutamate, paraffin, aluminum hydroxide.

The Ingredient List of the NIOD Survival 30:

Cyclopentasiloxane, Aqua (Water), Zinc Oxide, Titanium Dioxide, PEG-10 Dimethicone, Glycerin, PEG-9 Polydimethylsiloxyethyl Dimethicone, Dimethicone/PEG-10/15 Crosspolymer, Propanediol, Acrylates/Ethylhexyl Acrylate Crosspolymer, Hexyl Laurate, Polyglyceryl-4 Isostearate, Dimethylmethoxy Chromanol, Inulin, Alpha-glucan oligosaccharide, Solanum Lycopersicum (Tomato) Fruit Extract, Superoxide Dismutase, Xanthophyll, Pinus Pinaster Bark Extract, Polygonum Aviculare Extract, Alteromonas Ferment Extract, Padina Pavonica Thallus Extract, Arginine, Glycine, Alanine, Serine, Valine, Proline, Threonine, Isoleucine, Histidine, Phenylalanine, Aspartic Acid, PCA, Sodium PCA, Sodium Lactate, Squalane, Simmondsia Chinensis (Jojoba) Seed Oil, Tocopherol, Melanin, Sucrose, Tapioca Starch, Stearic Acid, Trimethylsiloxysilicate, Pentylene Glycol, Butylene Glycol, Trisodium Ethylenediamine Disuccinate, Sodium Chloride, Dipropylene Glycol, Tromethamine, Ethoxydiglycol, Alumina, Potassium Sorbate, Sodium Benzoate, 1,2-Hexanediol, Ethylhexylglycerin, Phenoxyethanol, Caprylyl Glycol.